What is the aim of the project?
The main objective until the end of 2023 is to research the added value of a 5G campus network for autonomous and connected driving (ACD) and unmanned autonomous flying (UAV) applications, if possible under real conditions. In this context, use cases of ACD (esp. motorway scenarios), including by the Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt), and of UAV (including live accident support) will be tested at the former Leck airfield (the conversion area). In addition, further applications of the ACD (scenarios: federal, rural and district roads) as well as wind turbine and high-voltage mast inspections with drones are to be tested on the test site of the GreenTEC Campus (GTC) in Enge-Sande. A central component of the testing of both fields of application will be the construction of a combined control centre for use in both subject areas.
Where is the project being implemented?
The project will be implemented in the municipalities of Tinningstedt, Enge-Sande, Leck and Klixbüll (North Frisia). On the one hand, the use cases of autonomous ACD and UAV flying are being tested at the former military airport in Leck and on the other hand at the private grounds of the GreenTEC Campus in Enge-Sande.
How can I participate in the project as a citizen?
5G issues are a very current topic in the media landscape and social media and keep citizens busy. We feel it is important to involve citizens, on the one hand to cover information needs and on the other hand to take concerns seriously. In order to focus this dialogue, we have a competent partner in the University of Lübeck to pick up the citizens and to take their communication needs into account. With this in mind, we are conducting surveys and interviews with residents from Enge-Sande, Leck, Klixbüll and all other people from this catchment area. Anyone interested in taking part in these surveys is welcome to contact us.
What is 5G?
5G stands for the fifth generation of mobile communications. This next generation of technology promises consumers faster data rates with lower latency or delays in the transmission of data. It also promises more capacity for a more efficient network. 5G is being developed with flexibility in mind to support future services and applications that may not exist today.
In contrast to previous network generations, 5G is not only intended for use by people, but is also aimed in particular at communication between machines. In the project, this is particularly the case with autonomous driving.
How is 5G different from 4G?
5G technology offers faster data speeds with less delay than 4G, which is sometimes referred to as LTE. Some 5G services will provide coverage areas with up to 100 times faster data speeds and near-instantaneous response time. For example, with 4G it can take almost six minutes to download a feature film. With 5G, the same movie can be downloaded in just 15 seconds. Technically, current 4G speeds are around 12-36 megabytes per second (Mbps), while 5G services are expected to support speeds of up to 300 Mbps or more.
How are risks of 5G technology and applications considered in the project?
The 5G expansion in Germany is progressing and possible risks are also communicated accordingly in the news. We at the project also take these risks into account. On the one hand, technical risks in connection with autonomous driving and flying are to be tested and analysed precisely by the 5G project - e.g. the transmission sequences and communication of the autonomous vehicles. On the other hand, we want to pick up the population through interviews and surveys and analyse which risks and concerns exist. If you are interested in participating, please contact us at 04662 61 477 65.
Health risks are currently being studied by researchers. We take these results into account in our project. The increased use of radio frequency fields, especially for the 5G mobile network, has raised public concern about possible harmful effects on human health. The radiation levels of 5G technologies are below the limits of the "International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection" (ICNIRP). Studies (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41370-021-00297-6) show little evidence regarding health effects, including cancer, reproductive and other diseases. This review found no confirmed evidence that weak RF fields above 6 GHz, as used by the 5G network, are hazardous to human health.
How soon will the 5G campus network be ready?
The first areas mentioned in the project are to be covered by a 5G campus network as early as 2021. The construction of the 5G campus network should be completed in 2022, so that all planned use cases can be tested in 2022 at the latest.
Will the 5G campus network also be usable by private individuals?
A campus network is a combination of private and public network, but company-related on company or university premises. As a private user, there is currently no access to the 5G network in Leck or Enge-Sande. For more information about possible access to other 5G networks in these regions, please contact your respective mobile phone provider.
What is autonomous and connected driving?
Autonomous driving usually refers to self-driving vehicles or transportation systems that move without the intervention of a human driver. In 2014, SAE International (Society of Automotive Engineers) published the J3016 standard (https://www.sae.org/standards/content/j3016_201806/) to define the different stages of development leading up to fully autonomous vehicles. The levels for autonomous driving range from level 0 (no automation) to level 5 (full vehicle autonomy). The more autonomous or connected, the more intelligent the sensor technology. But it's not just about automated and connected vehicles being able to set themselves in motion. In the future, the safety of the vehicle and the driver will continue to be the top priority, but passenger comfort will also become even more important.
Autonomous driving can still be supplemented with connected driving (Car-to-X or V2X technology). Here, vehicles and components communicate with each other to share traffic information. The vehicles can exchange information with each other or the information can be collected at a control centre and linked with each other for increased safety or optimisation of the data.
Levels of autonomous driving
Level 0: The automated system issues warnings and can intervene briefly, but has no permanent vehicle control. Drivers drive independently, even if systems, for example ABS, support them.
Level 1: ("hands on"): Driver and automated system share control of the vehicle. Examples are systems where the driver controls the steering and the automated system controls the engine power to maintain a certain speed (cruise control) or the engine and brake power to maintain and vary the speed (adaptive cruise control). The driver must be ready to take back full control at any time.
Level 2: ("hands off"): The automated system takes over acceleration, braking and steering over the vehicle. The driver must monitor the driving and be ready at any time to intervene immediately if the automated system does not respond properly. The acronym "hands off" is not to be taken literally - contact between the hand and the steering wheel is required while driving in order to be able to intervene as quickly as possible. A common example is adaptive cruise control, which also uses lane departure warning technology so that the driver only monitors the vehicle.
Level 3: ("eyes off"): The driver can turn his/her attention away from the driving tasks. In this level, the driver's intervention is further reduced to a reaction time defined by the manufacturer. I.e. when the vehicle requests the driver to intervene, but mainly the vehicle takes over situations that require an immediate reaction, such as emergency braking.
Level 4: ("mind off"): Like level 3, but the driver's attention is no longer required for safety, i.e. the driver can safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Self-driving, however, refers to spatially limited areas or special circumstances. Outside these areas or circumstances, the vehicle must be able to safely stop driving, e.g. brake and park the car, if the driver does not take back control.
Level 5: ("steering wheel optional"): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic vehicle that operates at all times on all types of surfaces and traffic situations and in all weather conditions.
Where are such vehicles currently allowed to drive?
According to the current legal situation, highly automated or autonomously driving vehicles without an attendant are only allowed to drive on private property, as the road traffic regulations do not apply there. Deployments are also possible where the framework conditions meet the requirements of the road traffic authorities for the use of such vehicles and an exemption is granted. With the current legal situation, deployment on public roads is basically only possible if a vehicle driver can take over the vehicle at any time. The control centre developed in the 5G-TELK-NF project will take over this task in the future.
What is UAV flying?
UAV stands for unmanned autonomous flight or unmanned areal vehicle or colloquially known as "drone". UAVs are a component of an unmanned aerial system (UAS), which also includes ground-based controls and a system for communicating with the UAV. UAVs can be flown under remote control by a human operator - Remote-Piloted Aircraft (RPA) - or with various degrees of autonomy, such as autopilot assistance.
Compared to manned aircraft, UAV are used for missions that are too "boring or dangerous" for humans, or where the use of humans would make a profitable business model impossible. While UAVs were originally used primarily in military applications, they are now increasingly used in civilian applications such as aerial photography, product delivery, agriculture, policing and surveillance, infrastructure inspection, science or drone racing.
Which companies and partners are involved?
EurA AG: Management and coordination of the project
GreenTEC Campus GmbH: Test site for innovative projects, autonomous mobility and renewable energies. 5G network deployment from 2021
Hanseatic Aviation Solutions GmbH: Set-up and adaptation of the drone for the use cases
Ibeo Automotive Systems GmbH: Construction and adaptation of the vehicles for the use cases.
Hanke Konsek – Engineering office: Project management for the development and set-up of a combined control centre for the monitoring and control of UAV and ACD, together with Leichtwerk Research GmbH
Leichtwerk Research GmbH: Development and set-up of a combined control centre for monitoring and control of UAV and ACD
MB+Partner: Development and construction of an automatic launch and landing system (REALISE) for the highly automated and rapid deployment of fixed-wing UAVs, together with Nordwig Werkzeugbau GmbH and RWTH Aachen University
Nordwig Werkzeugbau GmbH: Development of REALISE
RWTH Aachen: Support for REALISE flight system dynamics
University of Lübeck: Acceptance research
Lübeck University of Technology: Modelling and planning of the 5G network infrastructure, research on IT security of applications
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel: Examination and definition of law and regulations in the areas of 5G network, autonomous driving and unmanned flight
OffTEC GmbH: User for inspections of wind turbines
Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt): Testing of autonomous functions in vehicles (type approval and market monitoring)
Breitbandnetz GmbH & Co. KG
Municipality of Enge-Sande
Municipality of Klixbüll
Municipality of Leck
Municipality of Tinningstedt